Saturday, December 21, 2019

Types Of Control Valve.

#Control valve has 3 basic Components:

01. Actuator Most actuators are pneumatic. Usually, an actuator works with the help of a diaphragm and instrument air. This is the device that positions the throttling element (i.e., the valve plug inside the valve body).
02. Valve body subassembly This is the part where the valve plug, valve seats, and valve casing are located.
03. Accessories These include positioners, I/P (current- to-pressure) transducers, and position sensors. 

#2 types of control valves are based on their motion:-
01. Linear-Motion valves as- A- Gate Valves.
                                                 B- Diaphragm Valves.
                                                 C- Globe Valves.
02. Rotary Motion valves as- A- Butterfly Valves. 
                                                 B- Ball Valves.
                                                 C- Plug Valves.

#The Control Valve Actuator accepts a signal from an external source and, in response, positions (opens or closes) the valve to the position required or designed. Control Valve actuators enable remote operation of control valves.

#Actuators can be moved into position by either: 
01. Hydraulic signal,
02. Air/Gas signals or,
03. Electric signals.

#Typical control valve position commands include:
01. More Closed,
02. More Open,
03. Fully closed and
04. Fully Open.

#According to the power supply required 3 Types of CVs:-
1️⃣ Pneumatic valve actuators.
2️⃣ Electric valve actuators.
3️⃣ Hydraulic valve actuators.

Wednesday, December 18, 2019

Bearing And Different Types Of Bearing.

Let's know about what is bearing, which knowledge can make it easy to operate at chemical, petrochemicals or any other processing plant.

A bearing is a mechanical element which allows motion between two rotating parts, with minimum friction. An example of such rotating parts is a shaft and its housing. 

The function of bearing A good bearing is expected to do the following functions. 
=It should ensure free rotation with minimum friction. 
=It should support rotating parts and maintain them in the correct position.
=Bearing should transmit the forces acting on rotating parts to the frame of the machine.

Different types of bearing:
*Deep Groove ball bearing.
Deep Groove ball bearing
Deep Groove ball bearing

*Angular contact ball bearing.
Angular contact ball bearing

*Self-aligning ball bearing.

*Cylindrical roller bearing.

*Tapper roller bearing.

*Spherical roller bearing.

*Cylindrical plain bearing.

*Split type plain bearing.

*Tilting pad type plain bearing.

Monday, December 16, 2019

What Means Process, Process Symbol, Process Diagram?

Let's know about what is Process, Process Symbol, Process Diagram, which can make it easy to operate at chemical, petrochemicals or any other processing plant.

#what means process?
=When an output product is found through a single or multi-stage material or mixer's physical or chemical change, it is called a process.

#What is Process Symbol?
=Process symbol Maybe defined as the graphical alphabetical or mathematical representation of the different types of pipeline, valves or fittings, equipment, instrument, etc of the Process Industries.

#what is process diagram?
=All the instrumentation or fittings or parts of a process can be expressed through a diagram, that's called a process diagram.

Different types of process diagram:

01.Block diagram.
A block the diagram is a diagram that's the easiest way to represent a process.

Features of the block diagram:
=A single piece of equipment is meant for a block.
= Blocks should be of equal size and are organized in a consistent manner.
= In the case of complex processes, a single unit operation or unit process is shown through a single block.
= What is left in and out of each block is written on the block.

02. Flow diagram.
Instead of a block, each instrument, Vessel is represented by a simple figure called a flow diagram.

03. Process flow diagram.
The process of a flow diagram is the key to a process. This process flow diagram is written to process variables, physical condition, temperature, pressure. That is, the conditions of operation are written. Different types of measuring instruments and control instruments are mentioned in the process flow diagram. There is no coding in the process flow diagram but the unit operation remains. The P&I diagram contains coding but no unit operation.

04.Piping and instrumentation diagram.  
This diagram provides a comprehensive picture of the process plant. As far as possible a realistic picture of the whole process is made. Symbols and coding of pipes, fittings, measuring, and control instruments are displayed in the diagram. The process flow is arranged from left to right.

* Equipment coding, which consists of:
01. One of the capital letters (first, two-digit is section number).
02. 04 digit (the second two-digit is sequence number).

#Example: P0102
P= Name of equipment.
01= 1st two digits is section number.
02= 2nd two digit is sequence number.

#Pipe line coding:
01. 05 Capital letter and
02. 07 Digit.

*Example: 02 SL  BA 10 D100
02-Section no
 SL-Type of Fluid
BA- Material construction of the pipe.
10- Sequence no.
D100- Diameter of pipe (mm).

# Coding of Valves/Fittings:
01.  Two capital letters.
02.  Two Digits.

*Example: ST 15
ST- Steam line.
15- Sequence no.

# Instrument Coding:
01.Two or Three capital Later.
02. Three Digits.

*Example: FIC- 101
F- Process Variable.
I-Function of the process variable.
C- Instrument number.

Friday, December 13, 2019

About Heat Exchanger.

HE is short for Heat Exchanger (heat exchanger) and stomach is an integral part of its importance and the need to be in any operation  needs to transfer heat from hot liquid to cold liquid or vice versa.

# What is the idea of Heat Exchanger?

* In principle, heat is usually transferred from hot materials to cold materials and this lead to a decrease in temperature of hot materials and high temperature of cold materials (the amount of heat lost = heat gained + heat leaked into the atmosphere)
* Heat transfer in the heat exchanger is mainly in two ways:
1- Conduction
2- Convection

# What is the purpose of the Heat Exchanger?
• The main purpose of the use of heat exchangers is to save money ... as the cost of heating crude oil, for example, requires a lot of fuel and energy. In the same unit, oil products need to be cooled before being sent to the tanks (so the two functions can be performed in one heat exchanger or a set of heat exchangers).

#Cases of fluid flow in heat exchangers?
There are two cases of fluid flow in heat exchangers:

1. Parallel Flow or Co- Current: The direction of fluid flow, in this case, is similar, ie, the fluid flows in the same direction.

2. Counter-Current Flow: The direction of fluid flow is the opposite, that is, the two substances are moving in opposite directions.

Sunday, December 8, 2019

Difference between Pressure Safety Valve and Pressure Relief Valve.

Difference between Pressure Safety Valve and Pressure Relief Valve:

Although freely used interchangeably, these terms differ in the following aspect,

## Pressure Relief Valve - is the term used to describe relief device on a liquid-filled vessel. For such a valve the opening is proportional to the increase in the vessel pressure. Hence the opening of the valve is not sudden, but gradual if the pressure is increased gradually.

##Pressure Safety Valve - is the term used to describe the relief device on a compressible fluid or gas-filled vessel. For such a valve the opening is sudden. When the set pressure of the valve is reached, the valve opens almost fully.

About Check Valve.

What is a Check Valve?
The valve that used to prevent back flow in a piping system is known as a check valve. It is also known as a non-return valve or NRV. The pressure of the fluid passing through a pipeline opens the valve, while any reversal of flow will close the valve. It allows full unobstructed flow and automatically shuts as pressure decreases. The exact operation will vary depending on the mechanism of the valve.

Parts of Non-Return Valve:

It is consists of body, cover, disk, hinge pin, and seat ring. In the image below you can see the parts of the valve.

Types of Valves:-
The type of disk will decide the type of valve. Most common types of Check valves are
#  Swing Type.
+  Top Hinged
+  Tilting disk
#  Lift Type
+  Piston Type
+  Ball type
#  Dual Plate Type
#  Stop Check Valve

Application of Check Valve (NRV):

Check valves (Non-return valve) are used in a piping system to prevent back flow. The discharge line of rotary equipment such as pump and compressor always fitted with a check valve to prevent back flow.

The only function of a Non-return valve is to prevent back flow. There is no better alternative. Yes, you can choose the best NRV from the various available type that you have learned but you cannot supplement the Non-return valve with another valve.

Saturday, December 7, 2019

Why SHIPHON TUBE Is Used On Steam Pipeline?

# Pressure Gauge Siphon - Used to protect Pressure sensor from High Temp media & Pr fluctuations of media, Initially water has filled on coil portion to separate pr sensing elements with High Pr steam; once steam will condense also prevent d direct contact with pr media.

# Siphon tube acts as a cooling coil to protect the gauge from high temperature vapors.

What Is Conservation Vent Valve?

## Conservation Vent Valve is a device designed to maintain pressure within preset limits in a liquid-containing vessel for the purpose of emissions reduction. It also provides protection against excessive pressure or vacuum.

= Because of its primary function, a pressure/vacuum valve is commonly referred to as a breather valve or “Pressure/Vacuum Relief Valve (PVRV)“.

= It’s a protection device mounted on a nozzle opening on the top of a fixed roof atmospheric storage tank.

= It’s to protect tanks against rupturing or imploding. Without an opening or a controlled opening, a fixed roof atmospheric tank would rupture under increasing pressure caused by pumping liquid into the tank or as a result of vapor pressure changes caused by severe thermal changes. Imploding, or the collapsing of a tank,occurs during the pumping out procedure or thermal changes.

= It’s employed where it is necessary or desirable to reduce evaporation of tank contents to atmosphere.

= These vents are generally designated as the conservation type. They are typically mounted to a flange or pipe that connects to the vapor space (space within the tank that is above the liquid surface)

= The pressure in this vapor space increases or decreases as liquid is pumped into or out of the tank, respectively.

Wednesday, December 4, 2019

Different Types of valves

Different Types of valves

Different Types of valves uses in different sectors.

1. Globe valve:-

2. Gate valve:-

3. Ball valve:-

4. Butterfly valve:-

5. Diaphragm valve:-

6. Plug valve:-

7. Needle valve:-

8. Angle valve:-

9. Pinch valve:-

10. Slide valve:-

11. Flush bottom valve:- 

12. Solenoid valve:-

13. Control Valve:-

14. Flow regulating valve:-

15. Back pressure regulating valve:-

16. Y-type valve:-

17. Piston valve:-

18. Pressure regulating valve:-

19. Check valve:-