Friday, November 5, 2021

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Of The Steam Turbine.

 

Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Of The Steam Turbine.

 

A turbine is a prime mover or machine that rotates with a constant change of momentum. There are many types of turbines available, such as steam turbines, water turbines, gas turbines, wind turbines, sea wave turbines, etc. The steam turbine is an ideal prime mover and has multiple uses. Larger steam turbines are used to operate generators in power plants and smaller turbines can be used to run pumps and fans. Steam turbines can range from 0.5 to 200,000 HP or Horsepower.

Large or small turbines in the industrial field have to be operated very efficiently. We know that steam turbines are rotated by converting heat energy into kinetic energy. The shaft of the pump, compressor, or generator is attached to the shaft of this turbine, so that the pump, compressor, the generator will rotate along with the turbine.

Since we are talking about The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Of the Steam Turbine.  We try to find out how the industrial turbines are Start-Up or how they are operated.

 

# Steps Of Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) Of The Steam Turbine:-

The most notable aspect of The Standard Operating Procedure (SOP) of Steam Turbines is the heating up procedure of the turbine. The turbine heating-up procedure is done very carefully. Since the turbine is rotated by transferring the kinetic energy from the heat energy of the steam to the blade of the turbine. Therefore slowly increased the temperature of the turbine to the optimum temperature. Where the condensate does not form as soon as it enters the steam turbine. It is very dangerous for turbines. This condensate can break the turbine blade and the turbine blade can break due to thermal shock. The turbines have to be operated according to the heating up procedure usually provided by the organization or the turbine manufacturer.

  

  • Pre-Heating Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Heating-Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Inspection Works Before Start-Up.

  • Pre Start- Up Check Points.

  • Start-Up Procedures Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Post-Start-Up Check Points.

  • CheckPoints During Normal Operation.

  • Shutdown Works.  

 

# Pre-Heating Up Procedure Of The Steam Turbine.

  • Lube oil circulation must be ensured before heating up.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • The casing drain of the turbine should be kept open.

  • Steam should be introduced very slowly by the steam equalizing line.

  • Of course, in the first 3 hours, the temperature should be increased at the rate of 30°C/H.

  • Usually, Steam condensate will come out with a casing drain at 100 to 150°C.

 

# Heating-Up Procedure Of Steam Turbine.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • Steam must be increased through the heating-up line.

  • Now the temperature should be increased at the rate of 50°C/H.

  • The main steam Inlet and outlet valve should be closed.

  • Monitor Lube oil circulation system.

  • Monitor Lube oil filter differential pressure.

  • Dry steam can be seen through the casing drain when the turbine casing temperature exceeds 350°C.

  • Then all draining steam will come out dry.

 

 # Inspection Works Before Start-Up Procedure Of Steam Turbine.

  • Pipe Cleanliness.

  • During heating-up must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

  • Alignment Of Pump Or Compressor.

  • Rotation Of Rotor.

  • Pump Or Compressor Bearings.

  • Sight Gase Glass.

  • Lube oil System.

  • Lubricants.

  • Cooling Water System.

  • Pump Or Compressor Exterior.

  • Pump Or Compressor Driver Or Turbine.

  • Priming And Barring.

  • Pump Or Compressor Auxiliary Piping. 

 

# Pre Start- Up Check Points.

  • The lubrication system of all bearing points must be checked.

  • Cooling water must be circulating through all water cooling systems.

  • Prime mover power (electricity or Steam, etc as a driving force) should be checked.

  • Rotate the Pump rotor by hand.

  • level of liquid at the suction side should be checked.

  • Delivery valve closed for Centrifugal Pump otherwise delivery valve should be open.

  • The pump should be warmed gradually by slowly circulating hot liquid through the pump.

  • The spill-back line or bypass line should be open.

  • All Cooling Water System.

 

# Start-Up Procedures Of The Steam Turbine.

  • The suction valve should be open.

  • Priming should be performed properly.

  • The re-circulation valve or spill-back line should be opened.

  • Now ready to increase the turbine RPM by steam regulating valve.

  • RPM will increase gradually by the turbine governor's wheel.

  • Hold 10 minutes after the 1000 RPM of the turbine.

  • Monitor all parameters of the driver and pump or compressor.

  • The casing drains of the turbine should be gently closed as soon as the steam inlet valve is opened.

  • Monitor Condenser vacuum system work properly.

  • Monitor turbine ejector system works properly.

  • The critical speed of the turbine must be exceeded quickly.

  • When the pump or compressor reached normal operating pressure open the discharge valve slowly.

  • Keep normal the condenser level control system.

 

# Post-Start-Up Check Points. 

  • Monitor the steam temperature.

  • Process parameters such as pressure, temperature, flow, etc.

  • Temperature and vibration of all bearing points.

  • Abnormal Sound.

  • Monitor Condenser vacuum system work properly.

  • Monitor turbine ejector system works properly.

  • Keep normal the condenser level control system.

  • Monitor Turbine load or Steam Consumption.

  • Check the leakage from the stuffing box.

  • Adjust sealing water.

  • Check the bearing lube oil flow and pressure.

  • Check the suction, discharge, lube-oil, cooling water, pressure, and temperature.

 

# CheckPoints During Normal Operation.

  • Bearing temperature.

  • Suction and discharge pressure.

  • Lube oil temperature and pressure.

  • Cooling water suction and discharge temperature.

  • Discharge flow.

  • Seal leakage.

  • Oil level at all bearing points.

  • Driving side energy consumption.

  • Vibration and abnormal sound.

  • Monitor steam Consumption of turbine.

  • The oil level of oil reserves.

 

# Shutdown Works Of The Steam Turbine.

When a turbine operates at a high speed the following steps are to be adopted to shut down the turbine.

  • Open the Spielback or bypass line or anti-surge line or compressor balance line.

  • Monitor Vibration and abnormal sound.

  • Slowly Decrease the RPM of the turbine.

  • The critical speed of the turbine must be exceeded quickly.

  • Slowly shut off the steam valve, close the discharge valve fully.

  • Do not shut off the cooling and sealing liquid Supply until the shaft has stopped turning fully.

  • Monitor all Bearing temperatures.

  • The casing drains of the turbine should be gently opened as soon as the steam inlet valve is closed.

  • During cool-down must be rotor will turn by motor or turning gear manually.

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Electrical Measuring Instrument And Testing Equipment.

What Is An AC Motor? Definition And Types Of AC Motor?

The Mechanical Power Transmission System.

Reciprocating Pump Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution.

What is Packed Tower, Packing Elements, Function Of Packing Elements?

What Is Housekeeping?

Static Vessels And Towers.

How To Use Natural Gas In Petrochemical Plant.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What Is Rupture Disc, How does It Work?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

Metals। Used, Properties, Classification, And Types Of Metals.

Metals। Used, Properties, Classification, And Types Of Metals.

 


What Are Metals?

Metals are characterized as minerals or substances that are found normally underneath the outer layer of the earth. Most metals are observed to be glistening or sparkly. Metals are inorganic substances, which infer they're results of substances that were never known to exist. Metal is unimaginably strong as is utilized to shape a few things. Steel, gold, silver, iron, aluminum, copper, brass, lead, platinum, nickel, titanium, tungsten, silicon, etc, are names of some metals. Where not use metals? Like manufacturing, furnace, real estate, energy, oil & gas, oil and gas, mining, chemical industries, Space, industries, chemicals, oil, science & technology, city, engineering, piping, galvanized, transportation, other and everywhere use metals. These are utilized for assembling vehicles, PC things. Satellites, readiness utensils, and so forth Most metals are observed to be debilitating anyway some aren't. Sodium and potassium are those metals that might be cut by a blade though mercury could be a fluid metal at temperature. Then again metals like iron, copper, steel, and so forth are found in a strong state. In this context, we will try to know about What is metals? There used Properties, classification, and type of metals.

 

Where Metals Are Used:-

  • Transportation- Cars, transports, trucks, trains, ships, and planes.

  • Aerospace- Unmanned and monitored rockets and space transport.

  • Electronics- Computers and other electronic gadgets that require conductors (TV, radio, sound system, mini-computers, security gadgets, and so forth).

  • Satellite- Communications including satellites that rely upon an extreme yet light metal shell.

  • Food preparing and safeguarding- Microwave and regular broilers and fridges and coolers.

  • Construction- Nails in traditional wood development and primary steel different structures.

  • Biomedical applications- As a fake trade for joints and different prostheses.

  • Electrical power creation and appropriation- Boilers, turbines, generators, transformers, electrical cables, atomic reactors, oil wells, and pipelines.

  • Farming- Tractors, consolidates, grower, and so forth.

  • Household accommodations- Ovens, dish and garments washers, vacuum cleaners, blenders, siphons, lawnmowers and clippers, plumbing, water warmers, warming/cooling, and so on.

 

Physical Properties Of Metals:

  • All the metals are acceptable transmitters of warmth and power. Cooking tools and presses are comprised of metals as they are acceptable transmitters of warmth.

  • Ductility is the capacity of the material to be extended into a wire. This capacity permits metals to be brought into wires and combined with their toughness, discover applications as link wires and for fastening purposes. Since Metals can be brought into wires we can say that metals are pliable.

  • Malleability is the property of substances that permits them to be beaten into level sheets. Aluminum sheets are utilized in the assembling of Aircraft due to their lightweight and strength. Different metals sheets are utilized in auto businesses, for making utensils, and so on Consequently, metals are pliant.

  • Metals are vibrant on the grounds that it creates a profound or ringing sound when hit with another hard article.

  • Usually, all the metals have a sparkly appearance yet these metals can likewise be cleaned to have a gleaming appearance.

 

Chemical Properties Of Metals :

  • Reaction with water:

Only profoundly receptive metals respond with water and not all the metals. For instance, Sodium responds enthusiastically to water and oxygen and gives a lot of warmth all the while. Thus the reason sodium is put away in lamp oil is so it doesn't interact with dampness or oxygen.

  • Reaction with acids:

We know, Hydrogen gas is created by when metals respond with acids. For instance, when zinc responds with hydrochloric corrosive it produces zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.

  • Reaction with bases:

Not all the metals respond with bases and when they do respond, they produce metal salts and hydrogen gas. At the point when zinc responds with solid sodium hydroxide, it gives sodium zincate and hydrogen gas.

  • Reaction with oxygen:

Metal oxides are created when metals consume within the sight of oxygen. These metal oxides are essential in nature. For instance: When a magnesium strip is singed within the sight of oxygen it structures magnesium oxide and when magnesium oxide breaks up in the water it structures magnesium hydroxide.

 

Classification And Types Of Metals:

01. Classification Of Metals According to the presents of iron content:

 A. Ferrous Metal-

  • Steel-

    1. The Stainless Steel,
    2. Tools Steel,
  • Carbon Steel-

    1. Low Carbon Steel,
    2. Medium Carbon Steel,
    3. High Carbon Steel,  
  • Wrought Iron,

  • Alloy Steel,

  • Cast Iron.

 

B . Non-Ferrous Metal-

    • Aluminum,
    • Tin, Bronze,
    • Titanium,
    • Cobalt,
    • Nickel,
    • Tungsten,
    • Lead,
    • Brass,
    • Copper, and
    • Zinc.

 

02. Classification Of Metals According to the atomic structure:

  • Alkaline Metals,

  • A Transition Metal,

 

03. Classification Of Metals According to Magnetic and Non-Magnetic Properties:

  • The Ferromagnetic Metals,

  • The Paramagnetic Metals,

  • The Diamagnetic Metal.

 

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Electrical Measuring Instrument And Testing Equipment.

What Is An AC Motor? Definition And Types Of AC Motor?

The Mechanical Power Transmission System.

Reciprocating Pump Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution.

What is Packed Tower, Packing Elements, Function Of Packing Elements?

What Is Housekeeping?

Static Vessels And Towers.

How To Use Natural Gas In Petrochemical Plant.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What Is Rupture Disc, How does It Work?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

The Best Way To Search, Emergency Escape, And Rescue Operations From Accidents.

 

The Best Way To Search, Emergency Escape, And Rescue Operations From Accidents.

 


Accidents or unforeseen events can happen at any time around us in our daily life or at work. Everybody should know The Best Way To Search for Emergency escapes, And Rescue Operations From Accidents. Rescue operations are the act of rescuing someone from an accident site, protecting a person from harm or property, and keeping oneself safe. Undoubtedly the rescue operation, social service, health services, health care, safe search, emergency services, is a heroic and humane act.

Responsibility Of Rescuer.

  • Quickly evacuate the victim from the scene of the accident, or save lives.

  • Transfer the injured to the nearest medical center for first aid.

  • Removing the dead body from the accident area.

  • To make arrangements for the disconnection of water, electricity, and gas in the area affected by the accident area.

 

Important Tips Of Casualty Handling.

The aim should be to prevent further shock and injury by:-

  • Re-assuring the patient keeps him calm oneself.

  • Stopping bleeding with pad and bandage.

  • Keeping the Casualty warm.

  • Relieving pain.

  • Moving the casualty as little as possible.

  • Allowing the fresh air to reach the Casualty.

  • Not unnecessary cutting or removing clothing.

 

General Principle Of Rescue Operation.

  • Don't move the casualty unnecessarily.

  • Never transferred the victims by one rescuer without emergency.

  • Try to inform the victims about the rescue plan.

  • The Rescue Operation should be followed by the dictations of the team leader.

  • Assurance first the safety of the rescuer.

 

Rescue Operation Plan And Action For A Single Person.

You need to keep yourself safe and carry out rescue operations in an orderly manner through planning. If there is not more than one person at the scene of the accident, then the rescue operation must be conducted to keep oneself safe. Or a person should take part in the rescue operation only after informing the authorities for rescue.

 

Rescue Operation Plan And Action For A  Rescue Team.

The leader of The Rescue Operation team developed a flexible and adjustable plan that will permit rescue operation personnel to implement and tactics necessary to control a rescue operation.
The following list of some of the actions of rescue operation personnel implement the operational procedures necessary to conclude a complex rescue operation successfully:-

  • Direct the Rescue Operation.

  • Divided the collapse area into manageable areas.

  • Formulate a standby contingency plan.

  • Assess and evaluate the rescue plan as it progresses.

  • Designate a standing area and the needed equipment, tools, and manpower, etc.

  • Maintain Communications laterally with the rescuers.

  • Provide the incident commander with a progress report.

 

Methods Of Rescue.

There are different methods to rescue the causality. Suitability of the methods on the following conditions;-

  • The intensity of casualty.

  • Position and environment of the accident place.

  • The physical condition of the patient.

  • The consciousness of the victim.

  • Number of Rescuers.

 

Suitable Methods For (01) One Rescuer.

  • Shoulder Drag,

  • Ankle Drag,

  • Blanket Pull,

  • Human Crutch,

  • Cradle Method,

  • Fire Man's lift,

  • Pick-A-back methods,

 

Suitable Methods For (02) Two Rescuers.

  • Human Crutch,

  • Two-handed Seat,

  • Four-handed Seat,

  • Chair Carry.

 

Suitable Methods For More Than (02) Two Rescuers.

  • Hammock Carry,

  • Stretcher Carry,

 

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Electrical Measuring Instrument And Testing Equipment.

What Is An AC Motor? Definition And Types Of AC Motor?

The Mechanical Power Transmission System.

Reciprocating Pump Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution.

What is Packed Tower, Packing Elements, Function Of Packing Elements?

What Is Housekeeping?

Static Vessels And Towers.

How To Use Natural Gas In Petrochemical Plant.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What Is Rupture Disc, How It Work?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

What Is Distillation Process? Kinds Of Distillation Process.

What Is Distillation Process? Kinds Of Distillation Process.



In Distillation Process on Refining, measure including the change of fluid into fume that is accordingly consolidated back to fluid-structure. On water-steam distillation, It is exemplified at its most straightforward when steam from a pot becomes stored as drops of refined water on a wide surface. Refining is utilized to isolate fluids from nonvolatile solids, as in the partition of alcoholic mixers from mixed materials, or in the division of at least two fluids having diverse limits, as in the detachment of gas, lamp fuel, and greasing up oil from raw petroleum. Other modern applications incorporate the preparing of such compound items as formaldehyde and phenol and the desalination of seawater.

Some distillation processes commonly used in industry such as water-steam distillation, steam distillation, oil distillation, water distillation, vacuum distillation, steam distillation, vacuum distillation of water, alcohol distillation, etc. And all the types of equipment that are used for distillation are called distillation equipment. For example fractionating column, alcohol distillation equipment, copper distilling equipment, distilling equipment, distilling column, etc. 

There are four Kinds of Distillation Processes:

  1. Basic Distillation Process,

  2. Steam Distillation Process,

  3. Fractional Distillation Process, and

  4. Vacuum Distillation Process.

 

01. Basic Distillation Process:-

Basic refining can be utilized when the limits of two fluids are strikingly not quite the same as each other or to isolate fluids from solids or nonvolatile blenders. In straightforward refining, a blend is warmed to change the preeminent unpredictable part from a fluid into a fume. The fume rises and passes into a condenser. Normally, the condenser is cooled (e.g., by running virus water around it) to showcase the buildup of the fume, which is gathered.

 

02. Steam Distillation Process:-

On the Steam, refining is utilized to isolate heat-delicate segments. Steam is added to the blend, making various it disintegrate. This fume is cooled and consolidated into two distinct fluid parts. In some cases, the parts are gathered independently, or they'll have distinctive thickness esteems, all together that they separate all alone. A model is steam refining of blossoms to yield unstable oil and a water-based distillate.

 

03. Fragmentary Distillation Process:-

Fragmentary refining is utilized when the limits of the segments of a blend are close to one, still up in the air utilizing Raoult's law. A fractionating section is utilized to isolate the segments utilizing a progression of refining processes called a correction. In fractionation, a blend is warmed so the fume rises and enters the fractionating segment. since the fume cools, it gathers on the pressing of the section. the glow of the rising fume makes this fluid disintegrate once more, moving it along the segment and in the long run yielding a superior immaculateness test of the more unpredictable segment of the blend.

 

04. Vacuum Distillation Process:-

Vacuum refining is utilized to isolate segments that have high limits. Bringing down the pressing factor of the gear likewise brings down edges of boiling over. Something else, the strategy is practically identical to different sorts of refining. Vacuum refining is particularly helpful when the ordinary edge of boiling over surpasses the decay temperature of a compound.

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

Sewage Or Wastewater Treatment Process.

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

What Is Rupture Disc, How does It Work?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

 

What Is Electrical Measuring Instrument And Testing Equipment?

What Is Electrical Measuring Instrument And Testing Equipment?


Instruments or types of equipment that measure different types of electrical parameters (amperes, voltages, capacitances, resistances, watts, frequencies, etc.) are Electrical Measuring Instruments. On the other hand, Electrical testing equipment, such as a neon tester, can indicate whether a current or voltage exists or not. Electrical testing equipment can measure the amount of current or voltage, while some electrical testing equipment can also measure the amount of current or voltage.

 

Here is a list of some Electrical Testing Equipment:

  • Neon Tester,

  • Test Lamp,

  • Clip-On Meter,

  • Megger Tester,

  • Leakage Tester,

  • Tube Tester,

  • Continuity Tester,

  • Avometer,

  • Multimeter,

  • Cable Tester,

  • Coulombmeter,

  • Transistor Tester,

  • Electrostatic Fieldmeter,

  • Curve tracer,

  • Distortion Meter, etc.

 

The Blessing Of Science In Modern Civilization Is The AC Motor Or DC Motor.

 

The Blessing Of Science In Modern Civilization Is The AC Motor Or DC Motor.



This electric motor discovery of science plays a very important role in modernizing and simplifying our life. Undoubtedly the invention of the electric motor or ac motor or dc motor, a regulator of modern civilization. We will talk about Electric AC Motors here today. We all know that motor is important in our daily life, work or industry. It is very difficult to work at the present time without a motor as an artificial kinetic or driving force.

Since we will discuss electric motor or AC Motor here. In that case, we will know the Definition And Types Of Electric motor or AC Motors or classifications of AC Motors and briefly discuss some of the things that work in the AC motor industry. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using an AC Motor.

 

The AC Motor can be classified based on the arrangement:-

  1. Speed Place Motor,

  2. Capacitor Start And Run Motor,

  3. Capacitor Start Induction Run Motor,

  4. Shaded Pole Single Phase Motor.

 

According to the single-phase classification of AC Motor:-

  1. Induction Motor,

  2. Repulsion Motor,

  3. AC Series Motor,

  4. Un-excited Synchronizes Motor.

 

According to the operation methods classification of AC Motor.

  1. Synchronizes Motor,

  2. Asynchronizes Motor,

             (A) Induction Motor,

            - Squirrel Cage Induction Motor,

            - Slip Ring Or Wound Rotor Induction Motor,

              (B) Commutator Motor.

 

According to phase AC Motor are divided into two kinds,

  1. Single Phase Motor,

  2. 3 Phase Motor,

 

According to Speed AC Motor are divided into three types,

  1. Constant Speed Motor,

  2. Adjustable Speed Motor, and

  3. Variable Speed Motor.

 

What are the advantages or disadvantages of Induction Motors?

 

Advantages:-

  • Induction motors are cheap and very readily available.

  • The structure of the induction motor is simple and does not break easily.

  • Since the induction motor does not have a carbon brush, it is less frictionless.

  • The power factor of the induction motor is good.

  • Induction motor maintenance is not easy or required.

  • No other equipment is required to start the induction motor.

 

Disadvantages:-

  • If you want to change the speed of the induction motor, this speed can be reduced.

  • As the load of the induction motor increases, the speed decreases.

  • The torque of an induction motor is usually less than that of a synchronous motor.

 

Main part 2 of an AC Motor:-

  1. Starter,

  2. Rotor.

 

What is the percentage of sleep ( ‰ of Sleep )  for a Motor?

The performance of a motor, good or bad, depends on its percentage of slip. For example, if the percentage of slip is higher then the loss is higher. If the percentage of slip is less then the loss of that motor is less. The percentage of slip can be easily understood by one of the following equations. 

 

∴ Ns  =   120f / P

Hare, 

f     =     Supply friquency,

   =     Number of pole,

N=     Synchronous speed,

 

There For,   

                Sleep    =   Ns  -  Nr,     

Hare, N=     Synchronous speed,   

          N=     Rotor  Speed,

∴ ‰ of Sleep    =  ( Ns  -  Nr )    Ns ⌉  ×  100 %

 

What Is the Protection category of a Motor?

Looking at the external structure of any type of motor and the tag or code number on it reveals what kind of motor it is and what protection it has. That is, the short tag or code number carries the identity of the motor. Hare;-

  IP (XY)  =    Ingress Protection.

   X   Part     =      Solid Particle.

   Y   Part     =      Liquid Particle.

 

Hare,

Value Of  X  =   0  ∼  5,

0   =   Non Protaction,

1   =   15 mm Solid Particle Protection,

2   =   12 mm Solid Particle Protection,

3   =   3 mm Solid Particle Protection,

4   =   1 mm Solid Particle Protection,

5   =   Dust Protection.

 

Value Of  Y  =   0  ∼  8,

0   =   Non Protaction.

1   =   Dropping Water Protection,

2   =   15º Vartical Water Particle Protection,

3   =    Spray Water Particle Protection,

4   =    Splashing Water Particle Protection,

5   =    Jet Water Protection.

6   =     Ships Dead Water Particle Protection,

7   =    Water Protection.

8   =    Water Resistance or  SubMersible Motor.

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

Sewage Or Wastewater Treatment Process.

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

What Is Rupture Disc, How It Work?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

 

 

The Mechanical Power Transmission System Or Energy Transfer.

 

The Mechanical Power Transmission System Or Energy Transfer.



The factory or industry requires driving power to run various machines. The various machine's required motives have to be transferred from one place to another place. Or the power has to be increased or decreased or need to torque converter. The process by which the power of a machine is transferred or decreased or increased is called a transmission system. Here we will discuss mechanical power transmission systems or mechanical energy transmission systems or torque converters. 

Mechanical power is usually transferred to the factory in the following ways. V-belt, Gear, and Coupling transmission systems are the most commonly used of the following methods. These are discussed. Such as

  • Friction Wheel,

  • Flat Belt,

  • Synchronized Belt,

  • V-Belt,

  • Round Belt, 

  • Chain,

  • Gear,

  • Coupling.

 

What Is A V-Belt?

V-Belt sits in the V group of Puli called Siv. The number of this group can range from one to 15 depending on the transfer of power. The v-belt is made with several layers of rubber. Rubber consists of cotton reinforcement cord, plastic, and sometimes thin steel along its v-belt neutral axis. The v-belt is prepared in different grades and dimensions without end.

Dimensions:

The v-belt dimension is expressed as follows.

Largest Width  X  Height  X  Inner Length.

 

What Are The Advantages And Disadvantages Of A V-Belt Compared To Other Belts?

The advantages of V-Belt among other mechanical power transmission belts are discussed below. The v-belt has more advantages than other comparative belts and is more used in industry for comparatively long life timers. 

Advantage:

  • More power can be transferred through a V-Belt.

  • The slip of percentage is too low.

  • This drive is soundless and the vibration is low.

  • The V-Belt drive is very effective for nearby safety.

  • Less tension causes less friction on the bearings of the V-Belt drive.

  • The V-Belt never loosens or moves away from the pulley.

Disadvantages:

  • If any one of the accidents breaks, all the belts have to be replaced again.

  • V-Belt speed is lower than the flat belt.

  • It is difficult to open sideway the V-Belt as it sits in a group.

  • The V-Belt easily breaks overload.

The pulley speed of the drive needs to be measured occasionally while moving to get better mechanical power transmission through the V-Belt. This allows the slip of the belt to be measured. The sound of belts and puli must be observed at all times. Since loose will create unusual sounds. Occasionally belt vibrations need to be checked while running. The alignment of the belt and puli needs to be checked when stopping condition. Whether the driving and driven shaft parallels are ok can be seen in the off-state. 

 

What Is A Gear?

Gear transmission systems are used for the percentage of slip-free, powerful power transmission and high power transfer between nearby shafts. The following gear transmission systems are most commonly used in industries.

  • Spare Gear,

  • Helical Gear,

  • Herringbone Gear,

  • Bevel Gear,

  • Warm Gear,

 

What Is A Spare Gear?

Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Spare Gear.

A disc (gear wheel) consists of a number of teeth parallel to the axis or shaft along its circumference. The Spare Gear is the largest useable gear in mechanical power transmission systems or mechanical energy transmission systems.  

Advantage:

  • The spare gear is more effective than any other type of belt.

  • It is convenient to use A Spare Gear for low RPM.

  • Spar gear's lifetime is longer and maintenance is much easier.

Disadvantages:

  • Spar gear is louder.

  • Too much noise is felt at high speeds and comparative jerking loads.

  • Run the gear in a lubricating oiled or lubricant oiled container.

  • 1 out of 2 spare gears (usually pinion) is made of a non-metallic material such as synthetic, resin, or plastic).

  • Using helical gear.

 

What Is A Helical Gear?

Advantages And Disadvantages Of A Helical Gear.

 

Helical gears consist of teeth located angularly with the axis around the circumference of the wheel of the gear.

Advantage:

  • Noise is less than spare gear because a time multiple teeth work together.

  • Since the teeth of the helical gear are longer than the teeth of the spare gear, the teeth of the helical gear of the same thickness are stronger.

  • Helical gear is less vibrating than spare gear.

Disadvantages:

  • The helical gear always generates an axial force.

  • The result is thrust along the axial.

  • Additional thrust bearing or herringbone gear is required to withstand this axial force.

  •  

What Is A Herringbone Gear?

The herringbone gear is generated by combining the teeth of two sets of reverse helical gears on the same gear wheel. Since the two gears balance each other, the problem of helical gears does not exist in herringbone gears. Herringbone gears are commonly used to transfer large amounts of power.

 

Preventive Protection Measures In Moving Condition.

  • Regularly the vibration of the gearbox is measured.

  • You need to pay attention to the gearbox.

  • The temperature and vibration of the bearing should be monitored.

  • Need to monitor the temperature of the gearbox.

 

Preventive Protection Measures In Stop Condition.

  • Gear teeth need to be checked.

  • If any tooth decays or breaks, the gear should be changed.

  • The backless of the gear should be measured to see if it is within that limit.

  •  

Summary:

Since it is not possible to run a mill machine without mechanical power transmission systems or mechanical energy transmission systems. So mechanical power transmission systems or mechanical energy transmission systems need to be monitored routinely. You need to try to run the machine or factory properly. For this, you must check up the machine letter in the form of a daily weekly, and monthly drawing routine. We have to take action accordingly.

 

Please take a look at the following links:

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Industries 02.

Question With Answer About Turbine And Compressor In Process Plant 01.

What Is Compressor And Compression System? Working Principle Of Compressor

Sewage Or Wastewater Treatment Process.

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

What Is Rupture Disc, How It Work?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution Of Positive Displacement Pump.

 

Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution Of Positive Displacement Pump.

 


Like other Positive Displacement Pump or reciprocating machines, a reciprocating pump requires proper attention in inspection checklist, monitoring, troubleshooting, solution, and maintenance for smooth operation. Troubleshooters should have to inspect as well as monitor the whole pumps sincerely. Periodical inspection Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution Of Reciprocating Pump may increase the lifetime. Periodical Troubleshooting, Checklist, And Solution Of Reciprocating Pump may decrease intercepted production and also increase productivity.

Many problems may crop up during startup, running times, so one needs to know about a reciprocating pump & Troubleshooting. Possible reciprocating pump and troubleshooting and their probable remedies are disguised below:

 

01. Low Capacity:

Possible Causes:

  • Speed too low.

  • Liquid end valves leaking.

  • The piston ring or liner is worn.

  • Undersized Plungers.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Increase speed.

  • Re-lap or replace the valve.

  • Replace worn parts.

  • Install correct size.

 

02. Excessive Wear:

Possible Causes:

  • Misalignment.

  • Bent position/ rod/ plunger.

  • Worn bore.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Check alignment.

  • Check for straightness.

  • Replace liner or Re-bore.

 

03. Overheating:

Possible Causes:

  • Stuffing box overheating.

  • Bearing overheating.

  • Fluid too viscous.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Check that packing is not too tightened or badly fitted.

  • Check packing lubricant.

  • Review the specification of the Pump.

  • Check oil level or lubricant condition.

  • Correct the bearing for misalignment or excessive tightness.

  • Check fitting and condition of oil seals.

  • Reduce fluid viscosity.

 

04. Pumps Requires Excessive Power:

Possible Causes:

  • Pumps speed or RPM too high.

  • Misalignment of pumps.

  • Internal friction.

  • Tight bearings.

  • Lack of lubrication.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Correct against the recommendation speed.

  • Check the alignment of pump and Driver, also Foundations.

  • Repair the rubbing contact, clogging, etc.

  • Check bearing and packings.

  • Check quantity and quality of lubricant.

 

05. Vibration And Noise.

Possible Causes:

  • Cavitation.

  • Misalignment.

  • Bent shaft,

  • Faulty Bearings.

  • Excessive fluid viscosity.

  • Improper pump assembly.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Check pump operating conditions.

  • Correct alignment with the driver.

  • Check and replace if necessary.

  • Correct or review product suitability.

  • Check and rectify.

 

06. Short Packing Life:

Possible Causes:

  • Incorrect packing

  • Misalignment of plunger or piston rod with stuffing box.

  • Worn plunger or piston rod.

  • Worn stuffing box bore.

  • The packing gland is too tight.

  • Too much packing in the box.

  • Abrasive in pumpage.

  • Inadequate packing lubricant.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Install correct packing.

  • Improve alignment.

  • Replace worn parts.

  • Repair or replace the stuffing box.

  • Lossen gland packing.

  • Reduce the number of rings.

  • Strains or filters in-late.

  • Improve lubrication.

 

07. No Discharge:

Possible Causes:

  • Cavitation.

  • Speed too low.

  • Not Primed.

  • Excessive suction lift.

  • Air Leaks.

Remedy Or Action:

  • Check Priming.

  • Increase speed.

  • Reduce suction lift.

  • Check system and eliminate air leaks by sealing etc.

 

Please take a look at the following links:

What Is Strainer? Types of the strainer.

What Is Lubricant And Properties Of Lubricant?

The Steam Turbine, And How It Works?

What Is Rupture Disc, How does It Work?

What Is Fire Point, Smoke Point, Freezing Point, Dew Point, Flash Point, Pour Point, Boiling Point, Bubble Point?

Different Type Of Boiler. Boiler Operation And Operation Coefficient.

Pump Cavitation And Prevention.

Pumps & How It Works?

Centrifugal Pump & Troubleshooting.

Let’s We Know About What Is Seal And Types Of Seals.

Personal Protective Equipment (PPE). Types Of PPE.

Safety Measures Associated With Confined Space.

Explosion Hazard And How To Prevent It?

How To Prevent Fire Hazards In The Workplace?

Accident And Its Prevention In Work Place.

Occupational Hazard And Safety Requirements In Industries.

What Is Gas Hydrate? How To Prevent It?

What Is Filter Or Separator? Types Of Filters.

Let’s Know About Plumbing Fittings Or Pipe Fittings.

What is Critical Point, Surge Point, Yield Point, Aniline Point, Triple Point, Triple Point Of Water, Melting Point, Auto Ignition Point?